In the years after World War II, Italians started to leave again with the help of international agreements- labour and know-how in return for raw materials – for European countries, Argentina and Australia.
Once again, they had to pay a heavy toll: in Marcinelle, Belgium, for example, 237 men died in a mining accident in August 1956. Of the victims, 139 were Italian.
The flow stopped in the seventies. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs estimated that in 1994, there were over 58 million people of Italian origin living in various parts of the world – the equivalent of the population of Italy.